Michigan Content Standards Addressed in A Forestry Unit




Science Content Standards


Strand I. Constructing New Scientific Knowledge

Standard I.1 Constructing New Scientific Knowledge
All students will ask questions that help them learn about the world; design and conduct investigations using appropriate methodology and technology; learn from books and other sources of information; communicate their findings using appropriate technology; and reconstruct previously learned knowledge.

Applications: Engage students in scientific research: ask questions, plan and conduct investigations, use appropriate tools and techniques to gather data.  Research shows that students who conduct independent projects develop higher level inquiry skills.


Strand III. Using Scientific Knowledge in Life Science
Scientifically literate students and adults can use their knowledge to understand the world around them and to guide their actions. Important types of activities that use scientific knowledge include description and explanation of real-world objects, systems, or events; prediction of future events or observations; and the design of systems or courses of action that enable people to adapt to and modify the world around them. In the life sciences, real-world contexts in which scientifically literate people use knowledge are often described in terms of systems and subsystems, such as cells, organisms, and ecosystems.


Standard III.1 Cells
All students will apply an understanding of cells to the functioning of multi-cellular organisms; and explain how cells grow, develop and reproduce.

Cells are the basic living unit of which all organisms are composed.


Standard III.2 The Organization of Living Things
All students will use classification systems to describe groups of living things; compare and contrast differences in the life cycles of living things; investigate and explain how living things obtain and use energy; and analyze how parts of living things are adapted to carry out specific functions.

Organization of living things occurs both across species (as in taxonomic organizations) and within organisms (their structures and processes).


Standard III.5 Ecosystems
All students will explain how parts of an ecosystem are related and how they interact; explain how energy is distributed to living things in an ecosystem; investigate and explain how communities of living things change over a period of time; describe how materials cycle through an ecosystem and get reused in the environment; and analyze how humans and the environment interact.

It is within ecosystems that communities of living things interact.

Key Words:  Food web, food chain, interdependence, soil, decomposition; compare field and forest ecosystems; managed v. natural forest


Strand V. Using Scientific Knowledge in Earth Science

In the earth sciences, real-world contexts are often described in terms of systems and subsystems, such as atmospheric systems, crustal systems, solar systems, or galaxies, which are useful in explaining phenomena, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, thunderstorms, and eclipses.


Standard V.1 The Geosphere
All students will describe the earth's surface; describe and explain how the earth's features change over time; and analyze effects of technology on the earth's surface and resources.

The geosphere includes earth's surface and geological processes.

Key Words:  soil, erosion,


Standard V.2 The Hydrosphere
All students will demonstrate where water is found on earth; describe the characteristics of water and how water moves; and analyze the interaction of human activities with the hydrosphere.

The Hydrosphere includes all forms of water. Of particular interest in Michigan is the water environment in the Great Lakes region.

Key Words:  rivers, ponds, wetlands, water cycle


Standard V.3 The Atmosphere and Weather
All students will investigate and describe what makes up weather and how it changes from day to day, from season to season and over long periods of time; explain what causes different kinds of weather; and analyze the relationships between human activities and the atmosphere.

Weather is composed of patterns of moisture, temperature and pressure which move through the atmosphere.

Key Words:  Microclimates, affects of weather on tree growth, weather and plant adaptations





English language arts education in Michigan incorporates the teaching and learning of reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing.


Standard 1, 2, 3 Meaning and Communication
All students will read and comprehend general and technical material.


Standard 4. Language
All students will use the English language effectively.


Standard 5. Literature
All students will read and analyze a wide variety of classic and contemporary literature and other texts to seek information, ideas, enjoyment, and understanding of their individuality, our common heritage and common humanity, and the rich diversity of our society.


Standard 6. Voice
All students will learn to communicate information accurately and effectively and demonstrate their expressive abilities by creating oral, written, and visual texts that enlighten and engage an audience.


Standard 8. Genre and Craft of Language
All students will explore and use the characteristics of different types of texts, aesthetic elements, and mechanics--including text structure, figurative and descriptive language, spelling, punctuation, and grammar--to construct and convey meaning.


Standard 11. Inquiry and Research
All students will define and investigate important issues and problems using a variety of resources, including technology, to explore and create texts.

The thinking skills of inquir are  used to formulate questions and hypotheses, analyze and synthesize information, and draw reasonable conclusions.





Strand I. Patterns, Relationships, and Functions

Patterns, relationships and functions comprise one of the most important themes in the study of mathematics. Mathematical thinking begins with the recognition of similarities among objects or events, proceeds to generalization and abstraction, and culminates in the ability to understand, explain and make predictions. Contexts that exhibit structure and regularity provide rich opportunities for describing the physical world, studying mathematics and solving problems.


Standard I.1 Patterns
Students recognize similarities and generalize patterns
, use patterns to create models and make predictions, describe the nature of patterns and relationships, and construct representations of mathematical relationships.


Standard I.2 Variability and Change
Students describe the relationships among variables, predict what will happen to one variable as another variable is changed, analyze natural variation and sources of variability, and compare patterns of change.


Strand II. Geometry and Measurement
Standard II.3 Measurement
Students compare attributes of two objects or of one object with a standard (unit), and analyze situations to determine what measurement(s) should be made and to what level of precision.

Measurement reflects the usefulness and practicality of mathematics and puts students in touch


Strand III. Data Analysis and Statistics
We live in a sea of information. In order not to drown in the data that inundate our lives every day, we must be able to process and transform data into useful knowledge. The ability to interpret data and to make predictions and decisions based on data is an essential basic skill for every individual.


Standard III.1 Collection, Organization and Presentation of Data
Students collect and explore data, organize data into a useful form, and develop skill in representing and reading data displayed in different formats. Knowing what data to collect and where and how to collect them is the starting point of quantitative literacy. The mathematics curriculum should capitalize on students' natural curiosity about themselves and their surroundings to motivate them to collect and explore interesting statistics and measurements derived from both real and simulated situations. Once the data are gathered, they must be organized into a useful form, including tables, graphs, charts and pictorial representations. Since different representations highlight different patterns within the data, students should develop skill in representing and reading data displayed in different formats, and they should discern when one particular representation is more desirable than another.


Standard III.2 Description and Interpretation
Students examine data and describe characteristics of a distribution, relate data to the situation from which they arose, and use data to answer questions convincingly and persuasively.

Students must be able to examine data and describe salient characteristics of the distribution. They also must be able to relate the data to the physical situation from which they arose. Students should use the data to answer key questions.




Strand II. Geographic Perspective
Students will use knowledge of spatial patterns on earth to understand processes that shape human environments and to make decisions about society.


Standard II.2 Human/Environment Interaction
All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems, resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, and the interrelationships among them.

Understanding human/environment interaction enables one to consider how people rely on the environment, how they alter it, how it may limit what they are able to do, and the consequences of actions for both people and the natural environment.


Standard II.4 "Regions, Patterns, and Processes"
All students will describe and compare characteristics of ecosystems, states, regions, countries, major world regions, and patterns and explain the processes that created them.

Applications:  Compare to northern temperate forest to rainforest environments; history and consequences of past logging practices in UP and Michigan; compare native and managed forests for biodiversity, productivity, economics; compare value of different tree species; compare economic consequences of long-term and short-term management scenarios.


Standard III.3 Democracy in Action
All students will describe the political and legal processes created to make decisions, seek consensus, and resolve conflicts in a free society.

Applications:  Land use planning; endangered species, conservation easements, forest v. farmland v. subdividing


Strand IV. Economic Perspective
Students will use knowledge of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services to make personal and societal decisions about the use of scarce resources.

Applications:  Forest management and stewardship


Standard IV.I Individual and Household Choices
All students will describe and demonstrate how the economic forces of scarcity and choice affect the management of personal financial resources, shape consumer decisions regarding the purchase, use, and disposal of goods and services, and affect the economic well-being of individuals and society.

Applications:  Use of renewable forest resources (pulp for paper, timber, etc.)


Standard IV.3 Role of Government
All students will describe how government decisions on …public goods and regulation impact what is produced, how it is produced, and who receives the benefits of production.

Applications:  Environmental regulation; public v. private property rights (air, water, soil, endangered species, wildlife, etc.)


Strand V. Inquiry
Students will use methods of social science investigation to answer questions about society.

Inquiry, an essential component of effective decision-making, is the process of investigating problems of significance to society. Some problems can be sufficiently examined through the lens of a single discipline. Other problems, by their very nature, encompass more than one discipline. If citizens are to make sound decisions in efforts to solve social problems, they must learn how to pursue data, think critically, and communicate their findings effectively.


Standard V.I Information Processing
All students will acquire information from books, maps, newspapers, data sets, and other sources, organize and present the information in maps, graphs, charts, and time lines, interpret the meaning and significance of information, and use a variety of electronic technologies to assist in accessing and managing information.


Standard V.2 Conducting Investigations
All students will conduct investigations by formulating a clear statement of a question, gathering and organizing information from a variety of sources, analyzing and interpreting information, formulating and testing hypotheses, reporting results both orally and in writing, and making use of appropriate technology.


Strand VI. Public Discourse and Decision-Making
Students will analyze public issues and construct and express thoughtful positions on these issues.


Standard VI.I Identifying and Analyzing Issues
All students will state an issue clearly as a question of public policy, trace the origins of the issue, analyze various perspectives people bring to the issue, and evaluate possible ways to resolve the issue.


Standard VI.2 Group Discussion
All students will engage their peers in constructive conversation about matters of public concern by clarifying issues, considering opposing views, applying democratic values, anticipating consequences, and working toward making decisions.


Standard VI.3 Persuasive Writing
All students will compose coherent written essays that express a position on a public issue and justify the position with reasoned arguments.


Strand VII. "Citizen Involvement"
Students will act constructively to further the public good.


Standard VII.I Responsible Personal Conduct
All students will consider the effects of an individual's actions on other people

Application:  Public v. private good; use and protection of renewable v. non-renewable resources